Surgical removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.
Malignant tumor arising in the bone, cartilage, fibrous tissue or
A procedure that allows doctors to examine the organs inside the
body. Liver scans, bone scans, and computed tomography (CT) or computed
axial tomography (CAT) scans are often helpful in diagnosing and
staging cancer. With liver scans and bone scans, radioactive substances
are injected into the blood stream or swallowed. A scanner that
can detect radiation is used to create pictures and find any areas
that have collected excess amounts of the radiation. In CT scanning,
an x-ray machine is connected to a computer to produce detailed
pictures of internal organs.
Preventive checking for disease when there are no symptoms.
Mammograms and breast self exams are examples of screening for breast
A preventive procedure, normally consisting
of two x-rays of each breast, with interpretation for a women with
no symptoms of breast cancer.
The removal of the cancer as well as some of
the breast tissue around the tumor and the lining over the chest
muscles below the tumor. Some of the lymph nodes under the arm may
be taken out. Sometimes this is called a partial mastectomy.
Convulsions or sudden, involuntary movements of the muscles.
Sensitivity is the proportion of people with a disease in the tested
population who are identified. Sensitivity is a measure of the probability
that any given case will be identified by the test. A test that
reports that everyone has breast cancer would not be a sensitive
test. One that identifies only those with breast cancer is an extremely
Lymph Node Biopsy
In this procedure a dye or radioactive substance
is injected near the tumor. This injected material goes into the
sentinel lymph nodes, the first lymph nodes that cancer is likely
to spread to from the tumor. A surgeon then looks for the
dye or uses a scanner to find the sentinel lymph nodes and removes
one or more of them in order to check for the presence of cancerous
Problems that occur when treatments affect healthy cells. Common
side effects of cancer treatment are fatigue, nausea, vomiting,
decreased blood cell counts, hair loss, and mouth sores. Many side
effects can be reduced with medication.
Soma means body - the somatic cells are all the body cells except
the reproductive cells.
Specificity is the proportion of healthy people who are identified
by the screening test. It gives an idea of the probability of correctly
identifying a person who does not have a disease with a screening
A distinct phase in the course of a disease. Stages of breast
cancer are typically defined by the localization or spread of the
tumor. In situ, localized, regional or distant spread usually define
which stage the cancer is in.
The cancer is no bigger than 2 centimeters (about 1 inch) and has
not spread outside the breast. This stage is the ideal time to find
the cancer. Treatments are most effective at this stage.
1 Breast Cancer.
The cancer is not bigger than 2 centimeters, but has spread to the
lymph nodes, or the cancer is between 2 and 5 centimeters and may
or may not have spread to the lymph nodes. If the cancer is bigger
than 5 centimeters, it has not spread to the axillary nodes.
II Breast Cancer.
(IIIa) The cancer is bigger than 5 centimeters and has spread to
the lymph nodes or is smaller than 5 centimeters, but has spread
into the lymph nodes and other structures attached to them.
(IIIb) The cancer has spread to tissues near the breast usually
the chest wall, including the ribs and muscles in the chest.
The most serious stage where the breast cancer has spread to other
organs of the body, most often the bones, lungs, liver or brain.
All blood cells arising in the bone marrow.
Use of a computer and scanning devices to create three- dimensional
pictures of the inside of the breast or other organ. This method
can be used to direct a biopsy, external radiation, or the insertion
of radiation implants depending on the site of the cancer.
An x-ray guided method to localize and sample
suspicious lesions discovered on mammography. It is generally used
to sample small, non-palpable breast lumps or lesions using fine-needle
aspiration for cytology or core-needle biopsy for histology.
A diagnostic method used to locate the precise
area for breast biopsy.
Palliative treatment which is given to prevent, control, or relieve
complications and side effects and to improve the patient's comfort
and quality of life.
A procedure to remove or repair a part of the body or to find out
if disease is present. Also
see in Resources -> Breast
A meeting between the breast cancer patient
and surgeon to discuss the client's condition. This is not necessarily
followed by surgery. Many surgical consults result in a biopsy and
a diagnosis of benign breast disease.
This is a diagnostic procedure performed in
some cancer cases in order to verify the pathology of the disease
processes that are surgically accessible for treatment or diagnosis.
Anyone who has received a cancer diagnosis. This is true whether
treatment is in progress or has been completed. Also see in Resources
A lesion or mass that appears at the same time as the original mass
that is detected by clinical breast exam or mammogram. Two tumors
appearing at the same time are synchronous and one is not a metastasis
of the other.
Affecting the entire body.
Treatment that uses substances that travel through the blood stream
to reach cancer cells through the entire body. Most breast cancer
chemotherapy treatments are systemic, but there are some newer treatments
that are designed to target only cells in certain areas or only
cancer cells. Research is pushing for drugs that do not attack any
other cells, but the work is still in progress.