Unit of measurement that describes a dose or radiation absorbed
by a body.
The use of high energy radiation from x-rays,
neutrons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.
Radiation may come from a machine outside the body, external
beam radiation therapy, or from material called radioisotopes. Radioisotopes
produce radiation and are surgically placed in or near a tumor or
near cancer cells. This type of radiation treatment is called internal
radiation therapy, implant radiation, or brachytherapy. Systemic
radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance, such as a radiolabeled
monoclonal antibody, that circulates throughout the body. Also called
The formation of scar tissue as a result of radiation therapy to
A doctor who specializes in using radiation to treat cancer.
This procedure is also called the "Halsted Radical".
Removes the breast, chest muscles, all of the lymph nodes under
the arm, and some additional fat and skin. Also
see in Resources -> Breast
A diagnostic exam that produces pictures (scans) of internal parts
of the body. This procedure involves getting an injection or swallowing
a small amount of radioactive material. Then a machine, called a
scanner, measures the radioactivity in certain organs. Since cancer
grows faster than many other cells it uses more energy and needs
more fuel. The radioactive material is usually mixed into something,
like a simple sugar, that the cells use for fuel. Areas that absorb
more of the radioactive material indicate faster growing, possible
Drugs that make cells more sensitive to radiation.
To occur again. If cancer recurs it is called a recurrence.
Return of cancer cells after remission. The cancer cells may reappearance
at the same site or in another location. Also
see in Resources -> Breast
Cells that carry oxygen to all parts of the body, they are also
Treatment with anticancer drugs that affects mainly the cells in
the treated area.
Growing smaller or disappearing.
The return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a period of
Disappearance of the signs and symptoms of cancer. When this happens,
the disease is said to be "in remission." A remission may be temporary
or permanent. (See NED)
Surgical removal of part of an organ. This term is not commonly
used with breast cancer unless the cancer has spread to another
The organs that are involved in breathing. These include the nose,
throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Exercises and treatments that help patients recover lung function
after surgery or if disease or treatments have affected the function
of the lungs.
Anything that increases the probability of developing a disease.
Risk factors can be genetic or environmental. Also see related article->
You at Risk for Breast Cancer?
One of the nucleic acids found in all cells. The other is DNA (deoxyribonucleic
acid). The DNA holds the plan for the proteins that the cell needs
to grow and function. RNA transfers genetic information from the
DNA to the proteins produced by the cell.