A multi-faceted, incompletely understood system
which functions to protect the body from any foreign invaders, such
as bacteria, viruses, toxins and cancers. Also see in Resources
Cancer, Diet & Nutrition.
A method that uses antibodies to identify, locate, and stain specific
protein molecules in tissue sections (using a microscope).
A lowered resistance to disease, often because
of chemotherapy treatments.
Experimental treatments that attempt to use
the body's own defenses to control the cancer. Also known as immunomodulation.
The number of instances of illness commencing during a given period
in a specified population. More generally, the number of new cases
of a disease in a defined population, within a specified period
This treatment is given prior to highness chemotherapy.
The purpose is to assess the patient's response to treatment before
administering very high doses, and to decrease the tumor burden,
the amount of cancer in the body, prior to high dose chemotherapy,
thus giving the best chance for remission.
A tube which is threaded through a large chest
vein to the heart so that blood can be drawn and drugs, including
those for chemotherapy and medications for other purposes, can be
given without needing to repeatedly find a vein. Indwelling catheters
can be either the external type, such as the Hickman catheter, or
subcutaneous (under the skin). This latter type is generally called
The inability to produce children.
The most common form of invasive breast cancer.
Less common, this breast cancer originates in
the lobules, rather than the ducts of the breast.
Breast Cancer (IBC)
A less common, very aggressive form of breast
cancer. The breast looks inflamed because the cancer blocks the
lymph nodes in the breast tissue causing swelling, a red appearance
and warmth. The skin may show ridges or may have a pitted, peau
d'orange (like the skin of an orange) appearance.
see in Resources -> Inflammatory
The legal right of a patient to be informed
by medical personnel about a treatment or a procedure before giving
consent to undergo it. With experimental treatments and most surgical
procedures, this is put into writing.
Administering drugs into a vein or artery slowly, over a period
of time, sometimes using a pump. Note: Both infusion and injection
can be intra-arterial, into an artery; intra-muscular, into a muscle;
intra-peritoneal, into the abdominal cavity; intra-pleural, into
the space around the lungs; intra-thecal, into the spinal fluid;
or intravenous, into a vein.
Administering drugs into a vein or artery all at once. See the note
A breast change where highly atypical or cancerous cells are located
only in the ducts or lobules; they have not invaded surrounding
breast or lymph tissue.
Within the spinal canal or within a sheath. This can refer to the
use of a catheter to administer drugs to patients undergoing chemotherapy.
or Infiltrating Cancer
The cancer cells have spread from the original
site and invaded other tissue in the breast and/or lymph system.
Literally, "in glass." Taking place outside the body, in a laboratory.
Taking place in the body, or in another living organism.
On the same side. Used in Staging if the ipsilateral lymph nodes
are involved it means the lymph nodes on the same side of the body
as the affected breast have cancer cells growing. Contralateral
means the opposite side of the body. Your left axilla (underarm)
is contralateral to your right breast.