Shafts or openings on the surface of the skin
from which hair grows.
Removes the breast, chest muscles, all of the
lymph nodes under the arm, and some additional fat and skin. Also
see in Resources -> Breast
A physician specializing in blood diseases. Many medical oncologists
specialize in hematology.
Also known as c-erB-2, this gene is thought to contribute to some
breast cancers. Anti-HER-2/neu humanized monoclonal antibody (Herceptin)
has been effective in combating breast cancer.
A phrase used to describe the presence of HER2 protein overexpression
in a cell or tissue.
The excess production of the HER2 growth factor receptor (cell-surface
receptor) that results from a change in the HER2 gene in cancerous
Also called the HER2 growth factor receptor, it is one of the many
proteins on a cellís surface that signals the cell to divide
The anti-HER-2/neu drug developed to treat breast cancer patients
who over-express HER-2/neu.
Referring to the fact that there are many different
types of cells with differing properties in any breast cancer.
An external line (tubing) with one end outside
of the chest and the other inserted into a large chest vein and
threaded to the heart, used for drawing blood and administering
medications painlessly. It can be left in place for many months
or years, but must be carefully cared for to avoid infections.
A form of treatment, still in clinical trials,
used with high risk (Stage III) and metastatic breast cancer patients
in which the goal is to eradicate all the cancer cells in the body
by using very high doses of chemotherapy. Without the use of growth
factors and transplantation of the patient's own stem cells, patients
could not survive the treatment. Also referred to by the rescue
procedures such as bone marrow transplant (HDC/BMT) or autologous
bone marrow transplant (HDC/ABMT). Also see in Resources -> Treating
A test to measure the amount of certain proteins,
called hormone receptors, in cancer tissue. Hormones can attach
to these proteins. A high level of hormone receptors may mean that
hormones are needed for the cancer to grow making the tumor more
sensitive to hormonal therapy. Also
see in Resources -> Breast
Treatment of cancer by removing, blocking, or
adding hormones. Also called endocrine therapy.
Chemicals produced by glands in the body and circulated in the bloodstream.
Hormones control the actions of many cells and organs.
First begun in England, these programs are usually in the home or
in a special hospital or unit of a hospital. They provide services
by a team of professionals for the care of terminally ill patients
and their families. The goal is to improve quality of life, pain
control and care of other symptoms. One aspect is to provide emotional
support and make the dying process easier for the patient and caregivers.
see in Resources -> Facing
Also called total perenteral nutrition (TPN),
this means giving nutrition intravenously, for patients unable to
Bone loss from progressing bone metastases can
result in higher levels of calcium in the blood, causing this metabolic
disorder, characterized by fatigue, muscle weakness, nausea, anorexia,
constipation, and, in severe, cases disorientation and coma. New
medications like Aredia are used in its treatment.