The breast is composed of fat and fibroglandular tissue. Fibroglandular
tissue is the denser of the two. Tumors and normal tissue are easier
to distinguish in mammographic images taken through fat tissue.
Also see -> Breast
The evaluation of all tests to clarify abnormal
The degree to which a cancer cell resembles
a normal cell. Poorly differentiated cancer cells are usually
more aggressive and harder to treat.
An antihistamine drug, that helps against allergic reactions, particularly
those that cause breathing difficulties (Benadryl®).
Amino acid based part of every body cell that
carries our genetic information. Also see -> Genetics
& Breast Cancer.
The concept that treatment effectiveness increases
with higher doses of chemotherapy drugs.
The time it takes cancer cells to reproduce
themselves, and tumors to double in size. The range of doubling
time for breast cancer cells is from 23 to 209 days.
When cancer cells are insensitive to cancer
drugs, either initially or as a result of prior treatment, they
are said to be resistant. "Cross resistance" occurs when cancers
develop resistance to a drug after exposure to a related drug.
A structure in the breast through which milk passes from the glands
to the nipple.
A benign change where the ducts become dilated
and retain secretions. This often leads to nipple discharge and
can result in a lump in the nipple area or nipple retraction, but
is not usually related to a cancerous condition.
Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)
Abnormal cells confined to the breast ducts.
These areas often shows micro-calcification on a mammogram. This
condition may also be called intraductal carcinoma.
lavage is a minimally invasive method of collecting cells inside
the milk ducts. The cells are analyzed to determine whether they
are normal or abnormal (also known as "atypical"). The presence
of atypical cells is a known indicator of increased breast cancer
risk. Ductal lavage is used with women who already have some general
breast cancer risk factors, and are looking for additional information
about their risk level to aid in decision-making about risk reduction
options such as closer surveillance, drug therapy and preventative
mastectomy. Also see in features -> Ductal
Lavage Fact Sheet.
Shortness of breath, or difficulty breathing. This is a common side
effect of some cancer drugs.